Day-By-Day Walk Through US Legal History: June

1 June 1792Kentucky became the 15th state.

2 June 1924President Calvin Coolidge signs the Indian Citizenship Act, such that all Native Americans born within U.S. territory would be granted citizenship.

3 June 1918The Supreme Court in Hammer v Dagenhart found that the Keating-Owen Child Labour Act was unconstitutional because it went beyond the scope of the commerce power afforded to Congress.

4 June 1928Wiretapped private telephone conversations were deemed to be permissible evidence by the Supreme Court in Olmstead v U.S.

5 June 1950 – In Sweatt v Painter the Supreme Court ordered that the University Texas Law School admit African American students.

6 June 2005The Supreme Court upholds a federal law that banned cannabis, and medical marijuana. (The case was Gonzales v Raich).

7 June 1965In Griswold v Connecticut, the Supreme Court hands down its decision, holding that a Connecticut law preventing persons from using contraception violated a “right to marital privacy”.

8 June 1953The Supreme Court held that restaurants in Washington D.C. could not refuse to serve African American patrons.

9 June 1969Warren Burger is confirmed by the US Senate to be chief justice of the Supreme Court. He replaced the outgoing Earl Warren.

10 June 1964The US Senate finally breaks a 75-day filibuster led by the ‘Southern Bloc’ against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, leading to the passage of the bill.

11 June 1993The Supreme Court holds that extra punishment may be meted out to those who commit ‘hate crimes’ out of bigotry.

12 June 1967In Loving v Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that the Racial Integrity Act 1924, which prohibited marriage between white and colored people, was unconstitutional.

13 June 1966The Supreme Court in Miranda v Arizona held that statements made by a defendant whilst in police custody would be un-admissible unless at trial unless it could be shown that the defendant had been informed of the right to consult with an attorney and the right not to incriminate oneself during police questioning.

14 June 1943In West Virginia Board of Education v Barnette the Supreme Court held that school children could not be forced to salute the US flag if it went against their religious beliefs.

15 June 1804The 12th Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, which led to the Electoral College holding separate votes of President and Vice-President.

16 June 1897A treaty to annex the Republic of Hawaii to the U.S. is signed after a unanimous vote of the Republic of Hawaii Legislature.

17 June 1994Police charged O.J. Simpson with murdering his ex-wife and her friend. A chase along 50miles of highways in Southern California ensued before Simpson finally surrendered.

18 June 1948The International Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the U.N. Commission on Human Rights.

19 June 1862The U.S. Congress voids the decision in Dred Scott v Sandford by putting a bar on slavery is U.S. territories.

20 June 2002In Atkins v Virginia the Supreme Court held that executing an person convicted of murder but who had an intellectual disability violated the 8th Amendment. States were left with the power to decide what ‘intellectual disability’ meant.

21 June 1788The United States Constitution is ratified by the states. The Constitution created the national government, entrenching the doctrines of separation of powers and federalism.

22 June 1964In Escobedo v Illinois the Supreme Court ruled that suspects have the right to have an attorney present while they are questioned by the police.

23 June 2003The Supreme Court upheld the University of Michigan Law School’s policy of vetting applications to favor under-represented minorities. In Grutter v Bollinger it was held that the School’s policy did not amount to a quota system, which would be unconstitutional, as it took into account a variety of other factors in assessing an individual’s application.

24 June 1948A peace-time draft register for U.S. citizens aged 18-25 was created after President Truman signed the Military Selective Service Act.

25 June 2014The Supreme Court handed down its decision in Riley v California, holding that court rules in certain circuits allowing for the search and seizure of a cell phone during an arrest, and without a warrant, was unconstitutional. The Court held that a warrant is required to seize a cell phone and search its contents.

26 June 2015The Defense of Marriage Act was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. The Act had been introduced in 1996 under President Bill Clinton and barred the recognition of same-sex marriage.

27 June 1980President Jimmy Carter signed into law an Act to revive registration for the draft.

28 June 2000In Boy Scouts of America v Dale, the Supreme Court held that the Boys Scouts of America (BSA) was able to exclude homosexuals from the association, based on the association’s constitutional right to freedom of expression – opposition to homosexuality being a key message of the BSA.

29 June 1972The death penalty is held to a cruel and unusual punishment that is contrary to the 8th Amendment and consequently unconstitutional (Furman v Georgia).

30 June 1971The 26th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, making 18 the legal age to vote.